CopyRight @ 1997
This is an initial write used as a place holder.... In other words it's a really rough draft. Some of it is pretty old stuff and needs a lot of updating. This essay is a description of ecological features of human existence. It describes institutions. In this book, institutions are described as multi-generational behavioral patterns. They are very important to human survival and exist because they are solutions to ongoing human needs. They say much about humanity. 0. Introduction 1. types of institutions a. by list b. by function Function, perpetuation, orgnization, (laws or as create organization) by list 2. attributes of institutions a. Organization b. Perpetuation c. As creates Organization 3. Law and Custom Beliefs For Groups Institutions and Organizational Methods Humans have gotten where we are by cooperation, though judging from observation, you might not think it possible. Individual humans are far more interconnected than is the case for any other specie. There is an ongoing balance between an individual and their family, community and society. The last chapter was to discuss the beliefs and strategies of individuals. This chapter is to discuss the beliefs and strategies of groups. This could be a family, community, society, religion, profession or other group that has its own appropriate set of beliefs. Beliefs for groups relate both to function of the group and how to organize the group. Many of these sets of beliefs serve groups that exist for many generations and even have provisions for self perpetuation. Multi-generational behavioral patterns are refered to as institutions. Some are beliefs about family and community. Some of these beliefs refer to how we organize ourselves. These are called politics and religion. Some beliefs are about our resources. These are called economics and technology. All relate back to morality and survival strategies. 1a Family/marriage community society tech/econ politic power First then, is a look at what we consider institutions. function Lets start this out simple... if possible. So what do humans need to survive? Food, clothing and shelter is often presented as the answer to this question, but it is certainly more complex than that. Those are simply some of the physical needs of a human. there are other emotional and spiritual needs. Those are discussed in later chapters. Here is a discussion of how humans physically provide for their needs. This discussion is formed around lists of institutions and occupations as a way to show how human physical needs are fullfilled. They also define much of what human needs are. Institutions are considered here as multi-generational behaviors. They usually arise in responce to human needs that go on over generations. Institutions Humans live in groups called societies. A society is like an organism in that it has functionally specialized parts. There are certain functions that each society must address. Historically, these problems can be described as related to family, community, military, religion, science, politics and economics. No matter who trys to solve the ongoing needs of the society, certain needs of a society must be met for the continuation of the society. Often the function of an institution includes creation of some sort of social organization. Looking at where we have come from, we can see that the types and functions of institutions has grown. They are the tools that humans use to survive and solve common problems. They are organizational systems. They are belief systems for groups. Institutions preserve the functions of the society that go on from generation to generation. Early tribal humans had families, communities, societies, leaders, shaman, healers and other methods or tools of survival. Many problems are still the same and many present solutions are very old. Correspondingly, there is the educational aspect of each of these skills, so that the institution is continued. Before writing, that would have been a challenge. Some questions must be asked about any institution. What is the institution and what functions does it fulfill? How is it organizatized. What organizational systems does it provide. How does the institution grow and perpetuate itself? The different types of institutions are more limited than the number of functions that they fulfill. One simple list of institutions could be a list of the different castes in the classical stratified society: 1. Peasant Farmer to provide the basic food supply. 2. Craftsmen of many castes to provide buildings, tools and other necessities or commercial products of the city. 3. Priesthood to preserve the integrity of their people and their community. A priest is one who teaches morality. They also fulfilled the more intellectual professions. 4. Scribes were the record keepers that supported much of the organization of the society. 5. The military ruling class provided the focus of the organization of the society. They also acted as the defensive organ. 6. The soldier class. This class is described because it may be be different from the the ruling class. Their leadership may or may not come from the ruling class. 7. Criminal classes. Predators on human societies. Another list is of institutions and organizational methods could be based on what is observable. These would be education, family, marriage, religion, society, science, technology, war, law and economics. This list is based on the function of the institution and so shows how functional roles of various institutions have changed over time. Religion and politics are institutions that organize the society. A major class of institution of humans is the contract. The concept of a binding agreement is how we base our complete social structure. It would have been revolutionized by writing. It is the basis of ownership and money. It allows cooperation and organization. A functional model of the family and society is useful, because it describes requirements that may or may not change between different ecologies. Study of these needs and changes in past ecologies will suggest something about our future ecologies. The needs fulfilled by the society and its components are not going to fundamentally change much or more than necessary. ************ A. Functions of Family: 1. Basis of the reproductive unit. 2. Basis of the community which is in turn the basis of the religion. 3. For raising, socializing and educating children. 4. Care of the elderly. 5. Marrying off the children 6. It is the economic unit. 7. It is to preserve the families wealth and especially, status. 8. Care of the sick or injured. A tribe or community is the group within which the individual grows up in and marries into. Humans marry outside of their families, but within their community. Communities or tribes have always consisted of a few related, extended families. B. Functions of the Community: 1. The tribe or the community is a reproductive unit. 2. Any community must preserves its common beliefs, techniques, territory and survival strategy or moral system. 3. The society provides different forms of educational. 4. Provide any necessary defense against other communities. 5. Cooperative resource production. A society must serve to provide form within which the individuals and groups can interact to allow and enhance their mutual survival. The stratified society had to provide more than the tribal society. It must allow different tribes to live together. The next social form will have to provide things that the stratified society and the present society do not. Development of advanced social forms is a problem in technique, usually solved by institution or law. There is much carry over from family, community and society. C. Functions of Society: 1. Since the time of Sumeria, societies have had to allow different peoples to live together in cities and nations. It had to solve the problems posed by these different peoples living together and use these differences to the advantage of the components of the society. A basic point is that a society trys to tolerate the various different moralities, values and beliefs of its components. 2. It had to preserve the communities and the talents of each community. 3. A society must be able to provide all of the basic needs of its components. 4. The society provides a very advanced organizational form to serve its components. This is based largely on economics and the strategies of trade for survival needs. 5. A society leads to some or complete integration of its components. When examining institutions, consider that they were created to fulfill a need of people. A characteristic of institutions though, is that eventually a primary function of the institution is self perpetuation. When self perpetuation becomes the primary function of the institution, rather than the need for which they were created, the people suffer. It is similar to the result of nepotism. A major class of institution of humans is the contract. The concept of a binding agreement is how we base our complete social structure. It would have been revolutionized by writing. It is the basis of ownership and money. Most human institutions are firmly rooted in some contract. A contract can only exist based on communication. Most major cooperative achievements are accomplished based on the agreements of a contract. Cities and nations are the physical units of a society. The corresponding functionaries of them are the civil service, the economic structure and the military. These may be organized under military, religious, economic or democratic political control. Politics is for controlling the power of the society. Power is the ability to act, accomplished by the civil service, economic structure, military or population. Depending on the society, any combination of these can exist. So the civil service, economic structure, military or democratic polity can control the power represented by civil service, economic structure, military and people. Over time, it is always a changing static structure as each group jockeys for the power. It makes it sort of hard to describe, but it works this way and so must be described as such. No matter which group holds what power, each group has its basic organizational and occupational function. The military is based on the fact of violence. Whether it is aggression or defense, it is extremely important to the society. Many times it is the most important immediate facet of a societies functioning. It is inherently limited, because its creative potential is inherently limited as is its time frame. Its organizational system is basically like neolithic tribes and hunting parties. Religions are based on the reproductive survival of the society and its attendant moral knowledge, culture and families. Religion gives identity to the society that promotes cooperation by creating coehesiveness in the society. Religion is limited by its inherent conservatism as well as its potential for being corrupted. Aside from religions function within the society, is its function to create a similarity of beliefs that supports a nations cohesiveness. The economic structure of a society provides the resources for the growth and reproduction of the society and families. Historically, wealth was created by agricultural lands, minerals, manufacturing and trade. Very often, money can be used for power. The economic structure is limited by the difficulty and cost of responding to military attack. The more relatively successful an economic group is, the more they attract attack. Also, historically, wealth has contributed to a conservatism or a moral weakness that may eventually destroy the economic group. A democratic system is based on the rule by agreements made by large parts of the society. Its success is based on the wisdom and will of the voting members of the society. Its greatest advantage is the inherent weakness of systems that lead to nepotism. Slowly the techniques of rule by democracy have been developed. Politicking, voting, parliamentary procedure and law are all techniques that allow democracy to work. The civil service is the group, whoever controls it, that builds and maintains the city. They collect taxes which support the group in power. All of these groups have their own internal politics as well. ###################################################### Religion Religion is a name for many things at many times. It is institutions of every description that have encompassed almost every function. Religion is a basic institution in that it was just about the only institution for primitive humans, perhaps to the time of the military conquest of Sumeria. All advanced techniques were called magic and were in the care of the tribal shaman or priest. Study of institution and function could proceed from an early time when most institution was part of religion. Sometimes a society may be such that all institutions are part of the religion. Usually though, the military and often much of the economic sector, is somewhat independent of the religious authority. In any case, an understanding of these functions, or needs, and how they are fulfilled by different institutions, will offer a very descriptive picture of humans. In this particular case, much discussion of religion as the power structure is omitted, because that is a different function that is considered elsewhere as the power structure. It is not inherent to religion. Historic Functions of Religion. 1. Religion is about family, community, birth, growth, marriage, death and custom. Its basic function is to preserve the community, by preserving the habits, customs and beliefs that are the moral values that have preserved the community. Religion, in its best forms, helps the community adapt to necessary or beneficial changes. 2. Wardenship of the reproductive habits of the community. That includes marriage law, prevention of incest, social customs and rituals. 3. They protect the common teachings and beliefs that provides for both the survival and cohesiveness of the group. 4. Explanation of the natural world. 5. Astronomy and calendar keeping so as to be able to say when to plant. 6. They teach faith, offer solace and provide hope. 7. When a family of the community is having problems, the church provides what help is available. This is partly for self preservation, but more it is simply one of the main functions of a religion. It is a bit like a life insurance strategy. Religion must function when some other necessary part of the society or family fails. 8. They set the stage that allows different peoples to merge, by promoting the merging of their religions. It then promotes that they treat each other as if they were all the same tribe. The importance of this cannot be over estimated, especially when observing ethnic bickering. In the west, Christianity gave a mutual identity that went beyond all borders. 9. Religions deal with concepts of gods or supreme beings. In occidental tradition this is the patriarchal Judeo-Christian God. It is important for humans to believe in values greater than themselves. It is part of the glue of society. In ecological terms there are advantages and almost no liabilities to belief in god. One disadvantage is that conservative religious beliefs may conflict with new knowledge and ideas that are developed. It may be believed that science and technology can be an expression of god, as is felt, by many, about art and music. Who knows how people or religions will represent their understanding of god? It could take many forms including concepts of specie identity or respect for the total biosphere that gives us our life. 10. Religion was or is a major part of the power structure that is the basis of the organizational system that we use to operate our society. Bad organization is almost always better than no organization. Considering the importance of learned behaviors and moral training, it may be that one of the most important functions of religion is to give authority to the parent as a teacher. Here, religion will be described as it relates to god and to families. Family Fundamentally, religion is for support of the family and community. It accomplishes this by conserving and teaching survival techniques that are referred to as moralities. This teaching is done by individuals of many names, but here they are referred to as priests. In the time of the tribes, long before the development of what we think of as religion, the shaman or magician was an important member and function of the tribe. More generally, a priest is a person that helps their people survive. A parent is a priest to their family. Due to what the problems of human survival are, it could be said with some accuracy that the priest takes the responsibility of trying to save people from themselves, by conserving and teaching the lessons of the past that the "people" have learned. As in many cases, technique is more important to humans than just a physical adaptation. Culture, includiny moralities, is such a complex part of life that it must be taught. Over time, wise leaders have described the consequences of greed, dishonesty, sloth, excess and other common mistakes. They have also described the importance of perseverance, honesty, fidelity, respect, endurance, loyalty as well as the other survival strategies that humans have encountered. Because many of the things that humans value the most, such as land, artifacts and money, can be taken by theft or conquest, most of morality that is not about family is about material ownership. The core of morality relates to marriage and raising of children. f All through society are redundant systems to compensate if another vital aspect of the society fails. It reflects the degree of complexity and problems of the society. It is easy for some function of the society to fail and require adjustment. Society or religion can replace what the family failed to teach about the moral lessons that perpetuate the community and society. If the political leadership fails in some point of organization or credibility, religious organizations can provide a focal point. In emergencies or because of choice, religions can take on many other functions as well, so this tries to focus not on what they can do, but what they must do. At the time of the tribe, the main function of what would be called religion, was to regulate marriage so as to prevent the hazards of too much inbreeding. Moral laws against incest were formulated as taboos. What was considered incest was variable. It might have been considered brother sister unions or it might have extended to cousins of various degrees. Taboos would also have regulated meetings with other tribes. In the stratified society, the tribes lived adjacently, so the function of religion, of regulating marriage between tribes, became more important. It is referred to as balanced endogamy exogamy. It means that one marries outside their family, but within their group. It was said that one of the major functions of religion is to preserve the lessons and habits of the past. It is a function of religion to be conservative. This can lead to characteristic results. One better known result of religious conservatism is fundamentalism. Depending on circumstances, that can endanger or preserve a people. One consequence is the creation of an inbred core that is even more conservative as some of the more liberal components are lost to other populations. At the same time, the core group survives within a single successful niche and preserve their ancestral way of life. As long as the world does not drastically change, it is safest to be conservative. If the world does change, so must people, but they will only succeed if they preserve their past. Sometimes religion, like other institutions, may forget that their function is more important than their cherished beliefs or even existence. They can then become a hazard to the people they are supposed to serve. Religion,like other institutions, is a tool. It can be a crutch when an individual, family or society needs it, but it is more often like shoes. After the initial minor discomfort, you do not even notice it and it can make the traveling easier, especially if the going gets rough. Religion serves people. It can do little for god. ########################## God When discussing religion, one must discuss god. The first gods would have been the gods of the hunt, female fertility, weather, disease, war and the immediate happenings and problems that were beyond the understanding and control of early tribal peoples. Present occidental tradition includes the patriarchal God of the Hebrews. The Christian religions include Jesus, the son of God, and The Holy Spirit who pervades all of existence. It is an extremely masculine tradition reflecting the extremely masculine rule and values of survival during the time of the cities and warfare. The patriarchal God was basically a god of war and replaced what were mostly gods of female fertility and crop success. Just as religious philosophies responded to the horrors of iron age warfare, so did views of god, so Jesus represented the creative values of peace and endurance in the face of oppression. The Holy Spirit has represented the identity of the people of the religion as well as the aspects of god that cannot be personalized, such as universal presence. Gods are causes and so inherently non-causal or non-caused. For this reason, concepts of god are non-rational. As mentioned earlier, much of human belief is non-rational. Non-rational beliefs are held by faith - belief without rational proof. Religions with concepts of god, are like a symbiotic disease that humans are in the process of adapting too. The personification and anthropomorphization of basic survival concepts (moralities) of community and family produced an incredibly strong response in the humans exposed to it. Part of this is what is called faith. The morality of the concept could overwhelm all other thought processes and produce fanaticism. Even in a primitive form, used by humans unadapted to it, religion was an overwhelmingly powerful force. Religion is seductive and fulfilling. Religion is a verbalized description of the instincts of survival. ## Faith probably cannot be replaced by something rational. Faith is a fundamental part of human drive. One can have faith in country, self, a god, a religion, a leader or many other things. Faith is to assign an importance to something. Until a person places an importance on something, it is really not part of their world. It is a matter of awareness or conciousness. Other words might be used, such as belief or respect, but faith is the behavior being described and it is a powerful behavior.. Faith is a little like love. It is a natural human behavior that everyone experiences. Some things bring it out, but even the loneliest person knows what it is to be loved. It can happen for different reasons, all at once or after slow growth. It has many meanings. It can bring happiness and fulfillment. We can desire it without understanding the desire. It can grow, it strengthens and it can be learned. Both love and faith are essential elements of human survival and have a genetic basis that make them natural to learn. It is how we are designed. New data from twin studies suggest that faith is inheritable. That begs just how common it is. Humans require a balanced world concept for psychological reasons. We require explanations. They do not have to be accurate, only useful to the needs of the balance of psychology. Does it matter if you know that an earthquake is a tectonic burp or Poseidons sneeze? Knowing an explanation is what matters. The human brain is a pattern recognition device. Anything that we experience must be fit into the pattern somehow. Human intelligence is primarily designed for understanding of other humans. This is why we anthropomorphise or give human attributes to things and events that are not human. It seems normal and comfortable to give human attributes to the sea, the slopes, an institution, a car, computer or pet. It is our method of understanding. Often, it is projection. So what is the source of faith? Humans require certain forms of understanding around which to base their operating view of the world. We use a concept of our self image when considering how to deal with others. Our existence makes us presuppose a creator associated with our creation. A balanced psychology produces a respect for ones life and a corresponding reverence for its source. Faith is a part of a balanced psychology and is necessary to full health. Basically, faith represents ones feelings about existence. The way we express this is to give these as human attributes of god. So gods are given the personification of what we believe, value and desire. One appreciates the strength and understanding available to a person who can use some human concept to acknowledge their creation and existence. It helps orient their world and develop a clear knowledge of their beliefs and values. Religion creates, maintains and is based on historical and fictional myths that provide a special identity to the people of the religion, the basis for their moral system and an easily understood personification of their beliefs and values. This is the link between religion, god, society and family. Our instincts make us adapted to a related tribal group. Religion identifies along the same group lines, with amazing extensions. Since the human needs existed before the institution and because the development of concepts of god can be traced, present concepts and attributes of god must be considered aspects of the institutions survival and development. Acceptance of the irrationalities of religion are a statement of loyalty to the community or what else the religion represents. Important and as it stands, valuable to the religious power structure. That is one reason why the irrational aspects of religion may not be a drawback. g indiv How do people react to religion? Most have the unquestioned religion of youth. Not questioned, not rational. It illustrates that we are designed not to question the teachings of our childhood. Some people mature and their faith maintains their religious views. Some people lose their religion and some have a distinct hostility towards religion.. Do not even think it has to do with rationality. ######################################### f indiv Psychologically, there are direct links between what a person thinks of god and what they think of themselves. The same is true about religion and family. Check out people that are reactionary to religion. They had a problem with their family. They take it out on the religion instead of getting mad at their family. Interesting function. Usually it is that their family did not teach or mis-taught the children. Religion is rarely ignored. It is used or held in hostility. g indiv Spiritualism, is a normal part of existence. If a person rejects it, they are probably going against their nature. That would happen only in response to other things associated with it. Those associations may be the corruption and greed of the power structure as well as the hypocrisy of so many of the people that profess faith in the religion. People like that need religion. There is no other way that they will ever find any peace of mind. indiv The usual reason for the strong rejection of religion is because the parents were blow its. They screwed up the job of parenting and the childrens normal reaction is rejection of religion and other values of the parents, rather than rejection of the parents. g indiv This sort is to remind us that we operate by more than analysis. The rational analysis is nice, but it does not always suggest a God or spirituality, but it does not preclude one from feeling so. g God as a function. Who created you? Well, Ma nature will satisfy the mind. It's not as good as a supernatural anthropomorphized super being, but it serves in a model. I think that you will notice a rather natural response. As said, reverence and spirituality are far older than religion. They just built on natural inclinations. society? ************************* f soc Take two cultures. One has religion, one does not. What will happen in competition? Self righteousness is cheap and powerful. family or society. Of the moral lessons I examine, there are traditional topics and a few new ones like drugs and political events. Any can be taught by family, religion or society. They must be taught by family. Are there any moral dangers so great as to be require religion (and what it implies) in the future? Maybe. - Wealth, under examination, looks to have potentials unbelievably dangerous to the society... It must be considered necessary, but really not important.. In the mind, the statement that one loves God is the same as the statement that one loves their family ### move to end.. In the stratified society, religion is primarily an extension of the tribal form. Your tribe or people were defined by who you knew and lived with. With people living together in the cities, religion was necessary to keep the communities together, but separate from other communities. They represented castes that were occupational. The tradition and law was that son shall follow father in occupation. Since one of the major functions of religion has been support of the stratified society, the transition to a post stratified social form will cause great changes in what religion must serve. ## Their main function will become more focused on what it was originally - perpetuation of the family and community or more generally, regulation of human reproductive behavior by definition of community. It seems odd that religions may find one of their future functions, as in the past, is to keep track of and promote genetic knowledge and technology. Ancestry is a basic concept to all humans that keep records. God is how a peoples survival is represented. The people and their world are personified. end As our society grew and increased in complexity, many functions of religion grew large enough and specialized enough that they became completely separate institutions. This is such as science instead of religion explaining natural law. Progressions like this that we can see, may suggest progressions yet to come. Each function should be examined for how it was and is provided. Using a list of functions and institutions based on family, community, society and religion should provide a broad enough context, that is also basic enough, to describe most of human experience and need, no matter how it develops. institut ************************** power structure Corruption g Religions serve important purposes and inherently direct and lead people. That is why they can attract corruption. Just as wealth can draw the corrupt, so does the wealth and power of a church. Perhaps the greatest danger though, is from those of good intentions. So often people think they can help people by running their lives for them. Often its true, but all too often the kind of person that wants the power, will cause the greatest harm. They have good intentions, illusions and an unquestionable self righteousness. Plus, religions are about loyalty to the community. The test of loyalty has become acceptance of the church's god. It is an irrational action that is to serve a rational purpose. Faith is not rational, loyalty is. This element of irrationality is how a religious demagogue can manipulate a congregation into beliefs or actions that they otherwise would not accept. It is a little like the techniques of crime families and intelligence organizations that trick a person into accepting guilt for something they did not cause. The sense of guilt can then be used to force the person to be an accomplice in the commission of a real crime. g??? There are aspects common to religion, like faith, that are inherently non-rational. Religion is inherently based largely on emotions as well. Many ##crimes, intentional and unintentional have been commited in the name of religion. For these and other reasons, many people react emotionally to any discussion of religion or god. This is not the place for it. g The power structure tailors the religion to serve people that depend on it or can be subjugated by it, rather than those that can use it. They steal or abuse the natural spirituality that humans have and make the truly reverent, hide it. g instit add before establishment If religion seems bizzzarre, remember that what we see of it is descended from the time of kings and warriors as well as plague, starvation, fear, ignorance and lots of war. It is hard to say if the church was responsible for the dark ages. It may have been inevitable. Those times were so bad, and humanity so young, that any fantasy of religion, especially heaven, hell and divine intervention must be considered a reasonable response to the horror. Hope was a simple factor of survival when faced with such adversity. It is the wealth of our society that has freed us. ?? This is to describe the way it is rather than the way we sometimes like it. This is knowledge that need not be kept at the fore of the mind, yet sometimes it must be remembered. Humans operate largely as groups. We rely on our leaders. It is notable that humans generally have a great deal more religious fervor than nationalistic sense. It would be worth examining these differences along tribal lines. religion has to do with keeping groups together and separate from other groups. Many things could make this important, such as disease or economics, but this is written in the context of a fairly wealthy society based on technology ############################################################# -- Technical institutions and Function Related to Energetics and Resources Money.. and all attendant concepts.. are a bit like religion. We are not fully adapted to either. Money is a representation of the basic feature of the ecology called resources. It is not real, but it is a concept that the mind can catch onto like a god representing basic human survival. Money can often represent resources, but there are some distinct differences. Also, money must be examined in a few different time frames and views. E. Education The best environment for learning an occupation is in a family involved in that occupation. As the body of knowledge got bigger and there became more specializations, there arose a need for institutions beyond the family, for teaching, preserving and developing technical occupations. The priesthood was the first of these. As the need for technical education has grown, so have the institutions and businesses that teach. Due to various factors, occupational education no longer is passed on in the family. The importance of occupational education by the family, in the future, will depend on the genetic nature of the individual and the society that is created. ####### Education Education provides the learned techniques that are the basis of the resource acquisition strategies of all human ecologys. Extensive education is also necessary for an individuals social and cultural development. In that education is the best description of a large class of resource requirements necessary for the intellectual and social development of an individual, its importance cannot be overstated. Indeed it might be accurately stated that in the new ecology, the primary industry would be education. The importance of education is so basic and yet so resource demanding to provide, that if a technique for teaching that was energetically cheaper were developed it would change many other factors basic to human evolution. It is hard to adequately describe the potential techniques for education, especially using computer aids. It is necessary to keep the objectives of education of any individual, in mind. It must teach occupational, social and personal knowledge. This knowledge comes from family, institutions, experience and thought. Each part is an element of human development and maturity. A human should know enough to do their occupation, manage their life and position in society and to be able to do a fair job of raising a family. In the future, new factors will contribute to human ability to learn. We will have exceptional teaching tools and learning opportunities. It is hard to say either future demands of human potential or what learning potentials that humans will be able to develop. It can be said that our social and technical learning ability will continue to be of paramount importance to our continued survival. F. Food production. Food production may seem mundane at times, when living in a city in a technical society, but it is pretty basic. Food availability has always been a major limiting factor an human populations. Societies had to move when the land was farmed out. When considering the nature of any particular genetic potential, it must be remembered that the effects of malnutrition, during development, are likely to be a significant factor. A civil population requires a dependable source of high quality food. This depended on both the skill of the farmer and the domesticated crops and livestock available. Since the time of Sumeria there has been a caste and racial difference between the civil population and the farmers that provided their food. The farmers were called peasants. The farmers were descended from various groups including neolithic farmers and later groups that learned farming from the Sumerians. The primitive tribal farmers spread over most of Europe and the Ancient East well before the civil populations of Sumeria started to spread. The farmers of Sumeria did have superior tools, techniques and crops. In the future it seems unlikely that there will be anything quite like the peasant class due to the requirements of and for technical farming. Where civilizations have lasted any extended period of time, was in river valleys where the soil is regularly replenished or on a terrace farm where humans can replenish the soil. Anywhere else that humans have practiced agriculture for an extended period of time, the soil has been depleted. Soon, in a biological sense, humans will change from eating foods grown in natural soils, to eating food that is grown under created conditions. We also will utilize synthetic foods. From the point of view of the farmer, it is a question of resources. Traditionally that has meant fertile soil and adequate water. It becomes an issue of growing media, water conservation and even artificial lighting. Development of ultra-violet resistant, silicon plastics, will allow creation of durable, economical greenhouses. Grown hydroponically or in processed soil media, crops could be indefinitely produced without causing natural soil depletion. The water conserving nature of a greenhouse not only enhances growth, but also reduces the problem of salt build up. Few things of interest can be concretely be said about the future. One of them is about changes in food production and the status of the peasant farmer. 3. Technology. not resources Human development has largely been based on tool using ability. All organisms have behavioral techniques to go with their physical adaptations. A tiger bites and a horse runs. Humans survive by the use of technique. Human psychology and physique is so adaptable that with the use of tools and specialized techniques, we have spread all over the world and are capable of surviving in almost any extreme of ecology or environment. We build shelters and make clothing to protect against the weather and dangers. We have special ways to make food edible that we otherwise could not eat. For primitive humans, before agriculture, a digging stick probably provided more meals than a throwing stick did. About 400,000 years ago, humans got good enough at making tools and capable enough at using them, to start hunting big game. As mentioned before, this was the change that really started things. Then the technical revolutions started really happening at an accelerating rate as each development fed on previous technical developments and on developing human potentials. The developments were in agriculture, pottery, metallurgy, engineering, transportation, government, law, philosophy, medicine, economics, ad infinitum. Still, these are all things that we have learned. So where does it go? We already have replaced our food sources repeatedly. We have replaced muscle with machine and controlled disease. We have also developed some pretty complex and potentially useful systems of government, law and economics. Still, what are the techniques and systems that we will require for the next stable ecology and how can they be developed? By definition, the critical element in the ecology of any species is their energy source. To humans, this means an amazing diversity of resources, acquired and utilized qualitatively differently than by any other previous specie. Technical humans have an enormous energy and resource appetite. Our civilization has been built on the energy of agriculture and then petroleum. The next stable ecology will be defined, to a certain extent, by the form of the energy resources we utilize. The energy source that we use, its technical limitations and potentials, will define much about our culture. Unfortunately, since it would make things simpler, humans cannot be well defined, like most other species, by their resource characteristics. By using fusion and photo-voltaic cells, we will be able to provide the energy that we will require. A stable ecology is largely defined by a balance between energy utilization and availability. As far as it goes, with the requisite energy, we already have the technology to produce any resource we desire. Gold from sea water, aluminum, fresh water, glass, fertilizers, light, fuel..., all can be produced from cheap, plentiful resources.. if you have the requisite energy. Resource limitations for humans will most likely depend on waste management, space and choice more than simpler limitations such as arable land or water availability. It suffices to say that our technology is progressing rapidly and appears to have the potential to supply the energy and material resource requirements of the next stable ecologies under a variety of conditions. Just as the ecology will stabilize, so eventually will engineering technology, until there is not a complete technological generation gap every decade or so. As it has been in the past, tool using and technical ability will continue to be one of the most important features of human survival strategy. As was previously stated, humans are not completely defined by their resources. We are completely dependent on our knowledge and beliefs. Education, philosophy, law, belief, government, ethics, moralities, values, all relate to behavioral techniques that are vital to our survival. How developed are our behavioral techniques and how can we develop what we need? Since morality is the word used to describe the actions, beliefs, values and methods that constitute basic survival strategy, all behavioral techniques should be considered part of morality. All other topics should be examined first so that a complete view of morality and possible moralities, can be developed. &&& ## Organizational Forms put religion in here with politics politics, ++++ law,contracts,constitutions ownership nepotism + military rule, monarchy ##### There are cases where a useful adaptation makes an earlier adaptation useless or even detrimental. Use of the upright posture by humans made the drain of the respiratory system, the nose, move from below the mouth to right above it. Because of the additive nature of genetic evolution, this often happens where one trait supersedes an earlier trait. It may even occur when the first trait is far more developed than the new one, such as upright posture superseding bad placement of the nose. Upright posture is more important now, as the position of the nose used to be. ###### The importance of organizational systems to a civil society or any other human endeavor, cannot be over emphasized. It has superseded the importance of most factors, including genetics sometimes. There is often a conflict between an individuals desires and the demands of their life in their society. It can be seen that even bad organization is almost always better than no organization at all. My apologies to anarchists everywhere, but.. We require organizational systems, for institutions, all social groups from families to nations, personal organizational systems and systems to organize techniques. Organization of human systems require agreements, referred to here as contracts. The society is so dependent on organizational forms, that the needs of the society can outweigh selection at the individual level so much as to cause group selection. POLITICS Politics is a method for controlling power. Power is the ability to make things happen. Politics is a method by which power can be exercised most efficiently. Politics is how peoples differences are resolved, one way or another. /******************** this is about ruling classes How about a little expansion of the views of the related economic and ruling class. In either case, the rule is by power or by agreement. In a mechanistic view, this evokes no value judgement. It is not right or wrong, it is survival. ???? Ayn Rand provided us with brilliant discussions of the potentials of leadership of the society by different groups. move There are two points of view that the ruling class can take, that are not mutually exclusive. One relates to actions that serve as leadership for the society and the other relates to the exploitation of the rest of he society for their exclusive benifit. They can view themselves as the leaders of their people or as the owners and masters of them. To a member of a tribal society, those of a civil society are subjugated, controlled and domesticated. To a member of the civil society, a tribal individual is narrow, unadaptive and lacking in discipline. The issue really comes down to the beliefs of the society. Is the city and society a cooperative venture for mutual benifit or is it an arena for provincialism. A modern society requires a great amount of cooperation and organization. If the balance between social interest and self interest becomes to much towards the individual, the society fragments and fails as a community. Each group considers itself seperate and all other groups are different and to be exploited. It would be expected that in the next ecology, genetics and beliefs would be such as to make the society much like a community. The overall attitude would be cooperative, because you would be more interested in another persons potentials rather than competing with them. ###### Where this absolute need for organization is most clearly seen in our political and economic systems. Politics are based on power. Economics are based on resource. The combination makes the modern world. Where this absolute need for organization is most clearly seen in our political and economic systems. Politics are based on power. Economics are based on resource. The combination makes the modern world. #### Politics and often economics, is based on potential military power to control and dictate the rules. Aggressiveness has had much of the final say in history. As political systems develop in efficiency, they relate largely to using power in subtle ways rather than gross forms. Gross forms of politics are violent displays of power and are not particularly efficient. To a large extent, the development of aggressiveness during the time of the cities, has been the development of politics. This is because violence could largely determine the form of the organizational system. Much of the institution of politics was the best techniques for using power. Often power has an identical definition to aggression - violence or threat of violence to accomplish a goal. **********************************/ end of about ruling classes ########up CONTRACTS and LAW The contract is an organizational form. Often it is considered a legal entity. We can look at the form of contracts over time, using numerous points of view. Presently, we are using a system that was inherited from warriors, thousands of years ago. During that time, other contract forms were still used, but not primarily. What were the contracts of the Sumerians before they were conquered by the Semites? What were the contracts of the phoenicians and Minoans before conquest by the Indo- Europeans? Most would have been family. Probably, marriage was one of the only contracts before the cities. Marriage is still a primary economic contract. In history, the most important contract was marriage. ######## ## In ways, feudalism is as discrete a social form as the stratified society. It was another form of organization based on a social contract of classes. The contracts were oaths of loyalty and obligation. Feudalism and its niche were quite transitory, but significant as it led to much of the modern organization of nations. Writing primarily developed for record keeping of supplies. It seems likely that very early on, writing was used as part of a business contract, but a personal contract of honor and obligation probably existed before language. Through history both the personal and written contract have mutually developed. Often they are both recognized as legal contracts. Think of different marriage contracts. They have a basic form with numerous different aspects that change in interpretation. The elements of the marriage contract relate to economics, family, fealty, religion and community. Different marriage contracts vary on how each point is interpreted. The family aspect of marriage would have developed before the economic aspect, but not much before status. A personal marriage contract and a written contract exists together as a legal contract. Consider two contracts of marriage based on different beliefs. The belief is whether the offspring are believed to represent a combination of the parents or just the descent of one parent. Consequences would differ greatly. A very common organizational form is that of the neolithic hunting party. Its descendent is the basic working team utilized for most occupations and warfare. The ability to work as a team is one of the highest developments of human nature and technique. It is primarily a masculine behavior. organizational form-personal, family, community, political, military, corporate, economic One of the most important organizational forms to recognize is a form based on nepotism and a form modeled on nepotism, but having to do with common interest rather than common ancestry. ## So, make some models to see what might happen. What would happen if a practical fusion power plant were developed now. What would be the difference in consequence if the machine was small verses if it was large, complex and expensive to produce. To model management systems, the abilities of their working team must be described. We can examine the consequences of a variety of economic systems, techniques and laws. All of these interact with human ability and limitation. ##### p77own Concepts of Ownership Ahhh.. here it is. I've been looking for this. Concepts of ownership are fundamental to present human systems, but the meaning may not be so clear as a biological concept. What is needed is models that are familiar enough to understand, but different enough to contrast with our present concepts of ownership. Ownership is an organizational system humans use to optimize utilization of resources. Free enterprise - distributed ownership and management, creates distributed incentive and corresponding efficiency. It creates a system related to supply and demand of available resources and who uses them. This describes some of an equation that quantifies human resource utilization characteristics in relation to our social and genetic forms and limitations. Change any part of the equation and consequential social, genetic and resource changes will be projected. Presently, economics is based mostly on the rules of supply and demand. What would happen if something, perhaps technology, changed the nature of the supply or the demand? What other factors would have to be considered? Presently we refer to private, public, state, communal, military, family, legal and a few other types of ownership. What has ownership meant, what might it come to mean. This will only consider what is called public and personal ownership. There are gray areas, but these will serve for most descriptions. At the time of the tribal hunter gatherer, there was little to own. Personal items were bedding, clothes, cooking utensils, personal decorations, hunting and collecting tools and a few other items. Public property would have been the territory of the tribe and tribal "houses". There was not much to own and the most important item would have been the territory that was hunted and foraged. Even then, possessions were a large part of status. Different tribes would have been subject to different limiting factors on their population growth. Overall, food would have been the most common limitation. Humans survive in heat, cold and lack of water. Disease, though a common enough problem, would not have been a constant limit. With the rise of the cities, many things about ownership changed. There was more to own and more benefit to the ownership. New concepts of ownership could develop. Whereas the tribe had no concept of personal ownership of the territory, the farmer had to develop a great sense of ownership. It was not until the industrial revolution and the American Civil War that the importance of land ownership changed. The most important aspect of ownership developed, had to do with the increase in things to own. That allowed for large economic differences between individuals and the later development of the aspects of values and status that persist to today. Before this, status was mostly tied to hunting skills and fertility. Then along came the warriors. The agricultural peoples probably did not greatly change their values and concept of status. The warrior races had much more highly developed concepts of ownership. They were mainly nomadic pastoralists who had to transport whatever they owned. It was normal for them to raid their neighbors flocks. Status was more clearly related to a form of wealth and ownership. When they conquered the cities, it meant enforcing their ownership. The system developed, grew and was rigidly enforced by the ruling classes, because it was the essence of their power. At the same time it was a vital element to the organizational system that allowed the development of civil and national societies. The system in existence presently is directly descended from the system created by Alexander of Macedonia. At various times the ruling group has been replaced, but usually the system is perpetuated by the conquers to legitimate their rule and avoid destroying the vital organizational system. The way that they "legally" transferred ownership was by marriage or forced concession. Lack of the appearance of legitimate transfer of ownership invited immediate challenge and potential anarchy. Other concepts of ownership relate to religious or state ownership. These are variations on how ownership would have looked at the time of the tribe. Religions are analogous to tribes, in this aspect, anyway. So up to now, ownership has related to organization, status privilege and resources for survival. How will this change, within the predictable changes in the ecology? The question is complicated the most by status. If the social form is going to be based on survival and benefit to the individual, some things can be predicted. The first things to look at are private ownership verses state ownership. Then ownership will have to be looked in the context of changing genetic characteristics. Ownership is an organizational system humans use to optimize utilization of resources. Free enterprise - distributed ownership and management, creates distributed incentive and corresponding efficiency. It creates a system related to supply and demand of available resources and who uses them. At the same time it helps keep conflict over usage to a minimum. There is a vested interest for owners to protect the institutions and habits of ownership. This describes some of an equation that quantifies human resource utilization characteristics in relation to our social and genetic forms and limitations. Change any part of the equation and consequential social, genetic and resource changes will be projected. Capitalism and free enterprise are very different things. Capitalism refers to using capital, of any form, as a tool of production. Free enterprise refers to the ownership and management of a business. Free enterprise is part of the organizational system of our economic system. The whole point of mentioning this is to look at the consequence and motivation of distributed ownership and management. In every industry, niches of different sizes and characteristics develop with different management requirements. Some industries or businesses are demanding enough as to require small company size to provide adequately organized and motivated management. Bigger business tries to develop management systems that provide organization, profit and motivation. From a technical standpoint, what are the problems, strategies ad infinitum of our economic systems. What are the function and goals of the economic system? Better yet, can it be used as a description of human resource strategies. Anytime wealth is examined in the context of resource, remember to consider it in the context of status. So what forms of economic organizational forms will be used in the next ecologies? Existing and past methods can be described for systems from corporate legal forms to organization of a work gang to the use of money. All of these methods are technical tools of extreme importance. We use money as a method of resource exchange. We use law to keep the lid on. Management organizes. In the tribe, there was little that could be called wealth and most of that related to status. The stratified society is a name for an organizational form. Much of that form ended with the monarchies. At this time we watch the failure of the system called communism. ######## Really, religion is about family law that governed the form of the family and community. Politics is how different peoples, communities, organize their interrelations. Ownership is the basis of the organization of resources and economics. Laws governing ownership, came largely from warriors. Plato described the mythical society of Atlantis as composed of priest kings, warriors and farmers. He did not mention craftsmen or scribes as a group. The society is so dependent on organizational forms, that the needs of the society can outweigh selection at the individual level so much as to cause group selection. Predators It can be considered that the warriors that conquered the agriculturists and urbanites all through history, were acting as predators. For many reasons, humans should to be acutely aware of human predators and parasites. One notable reference to predators in a civil society is the term gangster. It is a word that shows up from a number of different times and locations. It is a word to describe a person that carefully uses violence to exploit individuals of the society while avoiding the retaliation or awareness of the society. In the study of cities, it is a constantly reoccurring theme. It is usually based on family relationships rather than tribal, but the real bond is the predatory or exploitive behavior p74comm Media and Mass Communication Much of the basis of human society relates to communication. Much of the present change in human ecology directly relates to communication of ideas, both philosophical and technical. Humans are near the culmination of a transition between ecologies. Our adaptation to this new niche will be behavioral. Both our genetic behavioral potentials and our knowledge must adapt. Communication is how we will adapt our knowledge and beliefs. Almost all human progress can be called technical advancement. Utilization of crops, tools, building techniques, sanitation techniques, science, political and religious forms are all based on ideas that were created, taught and spread. Rapid and mass communication techniques are basically very new. They are very important already and rapidly developing. It is very difficult to give more than a qualitative description of the effect of communication on human ecology, because its effects are just about all pervasive. Communication is a basis of human society and technology. ############################################################### # move the COMM stuff to technology #### So what effects and consequences are worth mentioning? Communication and speech have been a focus of human evolution since near the beginning of the hunter and gatherer ecology. Communication ability shows a peak in the big game hunters of the recent half million years. Communication is part of the focus of selection for any social specie. Communication is a large part of the development of technology and then the techniques can be used by others only after they have been communicated. Communication of philosophical concepts and beliefs is as important to human development as are the techniques of resource manipulation and manufacturing. Communication can be used as a description of the dispersal and hybridization of the human gene pool. The meetings and intermingling of the ancient tribes, is much of recent human progress. Communication can also be the name given to the transport of goods and raw materials in the local and global marketplace. Using the definition that a priest is a teacher of moral systems, that could make media quite a moral vehicle. One of the worst aspects of disfunctional families, is that the problems can be continued from one generation to the next. The only way to break the cycle is education. Media can portray healthy, functional families that can be used as models. High efficiency communication best serves creative groups and can hinder exploitive groups by the spread of warnings. Medicine and health care is one of the largest industries in the world. It entails extensive facilities for education, research and patient care. Its effect is profound, especially with antibiotics and other advanced techniques that save so many lives. Medicine is almost completely niche specific to humans though aid to an injured or sick individual is occasionally exhibited by various species. Health care may be considered an occupation, the practitioners of which are paid for their services. That description is almost misleading when considering the importance and complexity of the work performed as well as the resources devoted to it. Medicine can have different philosophies, partly dependent on available technology. The earlier that a medical problem can be dealt with, the easier and more effective will be the treatment. The first philosophy of medicine is to cure a problem after it occurs. This may be simply aiding a sick or injured person until they heal. A progression on this is when the persons own healing or disease fighting ability can be enhanced, such as by surgical repairs or antibiotics. The second philosophy of medicine is to prevent the problem from arising in the first place. This can be by vaccinations, particular health habits or early corrective surgery. The ultimate progression of this is when the genetic predisposition or susceptibility, to a medical problem, can be removed. Better than curing cancer, would be the reinforcement of genes that are not prone to cancer. STATUS ### status is both a behavior and an institution and a belief It seems likely that what we consider material wealth, actually represents an ecological element as novel as wars of conquest were 8000 years ago. Before agriculture, there were very few things that constituted wealth, especially durable wealth, other than territory. A question must be asked about the meaning of wealth. Is it something to be created or is it to be amassed? Money has so much meaning now. It can save a life or destroy a family. It can be part of status and it can enhance mate selection. It can compete with the critical values that constitute morality. Money is a critical part of the organizational system, upon which our society is based. Presently, economics is based mostly on the rules of supply and demand. What would happen if something, perhaps technology, changed the nature of the supply or the demand? What other factors would have to be considered? ### There are many kinds and meanings to wealth. Wealth can be material, genetic, technical and other things. It can be beauty, money, skill and position. One of the most important forms of wealth is status. In terms of biology, it is described as the reproductive group that you have access to. In terms of reality, it dictates much of the form of human decisions. Status is a fundamental and important aspect of how we socially interact organize and regulate our society. In analyzing any characteristic of human habit or belief, consideration of its relation to status is usually pertinent. Status and class have more mobile meanings than does caste. Caste refers not only to occupation and status, but to tribe. Class refers more to status and usually economic position. Class may not refer to tribe. In recent history, status and class has come to be very closely related to material wealth and to a large extent, beauty ( as in the past as well ). The source of our primary value system is the aggressive Indo-Europeans. We compete for status, by the methods and value system of pastoralists. There are some.. other value systems, aggressively attacked by more fundamental elements of the society ( ignorant people ) who instinctively attack any sign of change or challenge to their value system. The values of the pastoralist are just what can be seen presently. There is another form of status that this society recognizes to some extent. That is intellectual ability. Both the actor and the sport star are likely to acquire monetary wealth. This is usually not the case for the intellectual artist, but there is a status system involved. In a way it is like beauty, but it is so antithical to the common aggressive system of the society, that it becomes a separate status value and system. It is a very visible contrast between genetic wealth and material wealth. Beauty fits into the aggressive system better than creative ability and is often equated directly with material wealth. In a system dominated by aggressive exploitive values, The exploited class becomes low in status. Creativity is antithical to the values of the society. It is presently so important that you can get away with it some, if you are apologetic. One thing rigidly enforced by the society, it is unforgivable for an individual to claim superior intelligence. It may be due to the present lack of any real understanding of what intelligence means, but more likely it is seen as an assault by the aggressive value system. Perhaps intellect without the drive of aggressiveness is too limited. So, make some models to see what might happen. What would happen if a practical fusion power plant were developed now. What would be the difference in consequence if the machine was small verses if it was large, complex and expensive to produce. To model management systems, the abilities of their working team must be described. We can examine the consequences of a variety of economic systems, techniques and laws. All of these interact with human ability and limitation. ################################################################## Part 2 - General Attributes of Institutions 2b. It eventually becomes true that the main function of an institution must be its own self perpetuation. ?? Consideration of the complexity of the part of institutions that is for organization and self perpetuation, verses the functional aspects of an institution Part 3 Law and Custom Model of institutions acting together -- summary Consider the model of human society as an organism. It takes in resourses, distributes them, converts them, uses them and then removes their waste products. This is a very useful description of the stratified society. As such, each class and caste serves a specialized function like an organ. Consider it from the point of view of of the parts. It is like the old joke about the the organs of the body arguing about which has the most important function and should therefore run the body. A farmer says let them eat dirt. I am the only source of the basis of life - food. The craftsman says "you can only have your homes, tools, products and buisnesses if I create them". The scribe, teacher and priest say "try to exist, grow, organize or raise your children without my help". The economic and military ruling class simply say that they must ultimatly provide the critical executive guidence to the society and anyway they have the power to make things as they desire or believe. The nature of this problem was examined long ago. Plato described Utopia as having farmers, craftsmen and warrior- priests, to fulfill all of the necessary functions of the society. There are older descriptions of the functional parts of the society such as in the bible. In the tribal society, the differentiation of occupations was relatively much less, but did exist, though it was based differently than in the stratified (multi-tribal) society.
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